Causes, Signs, Prevention, Therapy and Ayurveda Understanding

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Causes, Signs, Prevention, Therapy and Ayurveda Understanding
Causes, Signs, Prevention, Therapy and Ayurveda Understanding


Article by Dr Manasa S

Pores and skin fissure is the identify given to a situation whereby there’s dry and cracked pores and skin. It seems as if there are ‘tiny cuts’ within the pores and skin. The pores and skin across the cracks tends to grow to be thickened and calloused.

Frequent areas of incidence of pores and skin fissures are

–         heels
–         fingertips
–         in between the toes

The pores and skin fissures happen as a result of excessive dryness of the pores and skin. This situation can also be known as xerosis. At the start, these cracks begin out as small cracks. Later, because the illness progresses they’ll get deeper and likewise could also be related to gentle to extreme ache. After a sure time period, these cracks get related to callus formation which seems to be yellow or darkish brown in color.  

Frequent web site of incidence of pores and skin fissures

Pores and skin fissures happen at locations that are underneath the stress of bodily stress comparable to heels of the foot. Heels help the burden of the physique. As a consequence of fixed stress of physique weight over the pads of the toes would possibly develop the pores and skin and trigger pores and skin cracks / fissures.  

Different areas the place fissures happen are – on the fingertips, between toes or fingers, and on different areas of the physique that are susceptible to dryness.

Causes of pores and skin fissures

Pores and skin dryness – Many of the pores and skin fissures are induced as a result of excessive dryness of the pores and skin. Later, this progresses with formation of callus and thickening, related to change in color to yellow or brown color. If this situation just isn’t handled at this stage, cracks develop on the pores and skin. Additional, fissures develop within the pores and skin at and across the cracks.

Environmental causesDry and chilly local weather makes the pores and skin dry. This will increase the probabilities of pores and skin fissures

Improper foot-care – Strolling barefoot and sporting open-backed or unsupportive footwear like excessive heels places a stress on the heel and this will increase the chance of growing pores and skin fissures.

Overuse of detergents – Steady and repeated washing of fingers and toes with harsh detergents pose larger danger of growing dry pores and skin which could result in cracks within the overused elements of the physique.

Frequent hand washing – Folks or occupations the place frequent washing of fingers are required – like healthcare professionals, home helps and people who find themselves concerned in day by day home works of washing and cleansing are inclined to develop dryness over the uncovered pores and skin and ultimately cracks develop over these areas. A latest report reveals that healthcare professionals have been discovered to expertise 70% of dry pores and skin situations and 39% had fissures within the pores and skin as a result of frequent washing of fingers which is a requirement of the occupation.

COVID-19 pandemic – This modified the best way the folks checked out hand hygiene. Healthcare staff across the globe have been the larger group who have been a lot affected as a result of frequent hand washing throughout this pandemic. This led to the onset of gentle to extreme dryness of fingers resulting in onset or exacerbation of pre-existing eczema. Of a complete of 143 docs surveyed throughout 2021, essentially the most frequent signs have been dryness – 42%, itching – 17.5%, scaling – 21% and redness – 11.2%. These have been as a result of extreme and frequent use of hand sanitizers.

Vitamin deficiencies – can result in dry and itchy pores and skin which if left untreated would possibly find yourself in manifestation of pores and skin fissures. A wholesome pores and skin wants a very good variety of proteins and nutritional vitamins like Vitamin B, C, A, E, D and Okay and minerals like zinc and important fatty acids like omega fatty acids. Deficiency of any of those important important components or micronutrients talked about above would disturb the conventional progress and upkeep of wholesome pores and skin.

Different well being situations inflicting cracks and fissures within the pores and skin

Diabetes Mellitus – People who’ve been affected by diabetes for a very long time are inclined to have dry pores and skin and so are they extra susceptible to develop pores and skin fissures. Diabetes is related to nerve harm within the decrease extremities, which is named autonomic neuropathy. Consequently, a person identified with diabetes is at the next danger of growing pores and skin cracks with or with out ache and bleeding.

Psoriasis – Psoriasis is an autoimmune dysfunction that’s characterised with thick plaques of useless cells over the affected elements. These plaques are at a excessive danger of growing cracks.

Eczema – This situation causes dry, itchy patches of pores and skin related to irritation. These dry and infected pores and skin patches have the next probability of growing cracks and fissures.

Fungal infections – Fungal infections are additionally one of many causes for pores and skin fissures. Athlete’s foot (Tinea pedis), a typical instance of fungal an infection which begins on the toes, can unfold to all the foot inflicting cracks and fissures.

Angiopathy – Angiopathy is a situation which is related to harm to blood vessels, together with veins and arteries. As a consequence of some underlying pathology, the pores and skin doesn’t get sufficient blood provide which hinders the wholesome progress and upkeep of the pores and skin.

Pathogenesis of pores and skin fissure

Dry pores and skin situation is the precursor for many of the pores and skin fissures. When the pores and skin will get thickened and calloused over a time period, the pores and skin loses its elasticity and small cracks are shaped. When these pores and skin fissures are left untreated, the cracks deepen, resulting in bleeding and an infection.

Sorts of manifestation of pores and skin fissures

Pores and skin fissures may be both superficial or deep seated.

Superficial fissures are minor cracks that don’t penetrate into the deeper pores and skin layers. Then again, deep fissures penetrate into deep layers of pores and skin and are related to extra extreme issues like bleeding with or with out ache.

Signs of pores and skin fissure

Seems as ‘cuts or cracks’ within the pores and skin

Affected pores and skin mostly seems to be yellow or darkish brown in color

Pores and skin is thickened and calloused

Early indicators of pores and skin fissures embody dry pores and skin, scaly and redness

Pores and skin fissures on the foot makes it tough to stroll and stand for very long time, it can be painful

Itching, ache and bleeding are the superior indicators of pores and skin fissure

When pores and skin fissures should not handled promptly, they may get contaminated and would possibly flip into wounds after which lastly to ulcers

Care of pores and skin fissures at residence

There are specific measures that may be adopted as each preventive and therapeutic measures.

Common measures embody –

Hydration – holding the hydration correct by ingesting sufficient water

Balanced meals – consumption of balanced meals which include entire grains, fruits, greens and lean proteins

Clothes – sporting clear clothes, socks and footwear which permit correct aeration

Sandals – Selecting sandals or flip-flops to put on in public swimming swimming pools or showers in order to forestall getting affected with athlete’s foot

Air humidifier – One ought to use air humidifier, if the dry air is a motive for dryness within the pores and skin

Common use of lotions, moisturizers and emollients –

–         Lotions which include glycerine and urea assist to shed useless cells off the pores and skin and thus get deeper into the pores and skin layers. This helps to heal the cracked pores and skin surfaces.

–         Lotions which include beeswax and sure mineral oils assist to extend the water content material of the pores and skin by stopping the lack of water by evaporation.

–         Lanolin and propylene glycol acts as emollients to fill within the fissures of the pores and skin. These lubricants assist in correct hydration of the pores and skin and thus give the smoothness to the affected half.

Pumice stones – Eradicating or exfoliating useless cells on the toes with the assistance of pumice stone retains the pores and skin wholesome. However care ought to be taken when there’s already a crack or fissures on the pores and skin related to or with out an infection or ache or bleeding.

Use of oils – Sure oils and different substances which can be utilized as therapeutic massage oils to forestall and handle fissures of their early levels embody:

–         Coconut oil – Use of coconut oil has been discovered to be very efficient for dry pores and skin situations. It moisturizes the pores and skin together with improvisation of the conventional capabilities of the pores and skin.

–         Almond oil – It helps to heal the fissures of the pores and skin by enhancing the capabilities of the pores and skin barrier. It additionally helps in stopping water loss within the pores and skin.

–         Avocado oil – Making use of the avocado oil on to the fissured pores and skin will increase collagen manufacturing and aids in rushing up the therapeutic of wounds.

–         Oat oil – Utility of the oat oil provides up the moisture content material and reduces irritation, thereby prompts correct wound therapeutic.

Honey – Honey when used acts as a pure moisturizer, helps in therapeutic of the cracked pores and skin. Honey additionally possesses some antibacterial properties, which could assist in prevention of pores and skin infections.

Aloe vera – Aloe vera is a well-liked and efficient herb which finds a very good place due to its antioxidant properties and soothing impact on the pores and skin. When utilized to the fissured pores and skin it helps in enhance of the collagen manufacturing and thus aids in wound therapeutic and when utilized repeatedly would possibly stop the formation of fissures by enhancing the elasticity of the pores and skin due to its antioxidant property.

When to seek the advice of a pores and skin specialist?

–         One ought to seek the advice of a pores and skin specialist within the beneath talked about situations –
–         When there is no such thing as a enchancment even after making use of moisturizers or taking good care of fissures at residence
–         If the pores and skin fissure is contaminated and related to or with out bleeding and the fissures are deeply located
–         If the fissures are related to irritation and soreness with or with out discharge of foul-smelling liquids
–         If the fissures are related to athlete’s foot, a typical fungal an infection of the toes
–         When the fissures are deep rooted with issues comparable to discharge of pus and bleeding with excessive ache, it would want a pores and skin specialist to take away the broken pores and skin and clear the injuries or to shut the fissures with pores and skin glue or bandages to maintain them closed.
–         People who find themselves already affected by power diabetes, psoriasis, eczema or every other power pores and skin issues or any medical situation want to go to the pores and skin specialist to get a complete strategy in the direction of the pores and skin fissures.

Ayurveda perspective

In Ayurveda we’ve got a situation talked about amongst Vata Nanatmaja Rogas i.e. ‘particular issues attributable to solely aggravation of vata’ named ‘Vipadika’. An analogous situation has been defined within the context of ‘Kshudra Kushta’ – minor pores and skin issues whereby it’s known as ‘Vaipadika’. Vaipadika is outlined as fissuring and cracks in fingers and toes with extreme ache.

Pores and skin fissures defined on this article pertaining to ‘fingers and toes’ may be in comparison with Vipadika. It may be handled on the traces of ‘Vata Roga Chikitsa’ or ‘Kushta Chikitsa’.

Associated Studying – Vipadika 



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